Diabetes mellitus is a disease manifested by high levels of sugar (glucose) in the blood (hyperglycemia). High blood sugar is caused due to below optimum levels of insulin in the blood or insensitivity of the body to insulin.

Diabetes mellitus types

Diabetes mellitus Type I

Type I diabetes mellitus is a medical condition in which the body is not able to produce insulin. It is caused by the destruction of the Beta-cells responsible for insulin production in the pancreas. Type I diabetes is prevalent mostly in children and juveniles. Diabetes mellitus type I is also known as childhood diabetes, juvenile-onset diabetes.

Diabetes mellitus Type II

Type II diabetes mellitus is characterized by the poor response of the body to insulin and/or by low levels of insulin in the blood. It is the most common diabetes mellitus type and mostly occurs in adults.

Diabetes Type II causes

Excessive energy intake (due to large high calorie food intake or lack of exercise), weight gain , obesity, and smoking contribute to increased insulin resistance and poor glycemic control.

Low fiber foods - high in refined sugars, fat and protein, which lead to over-weight and obesity is one of the causes to maturity-onset non-insulin-dependent Type II diabetes mellitus. Such high calorie diets rich in sucrose include white wheat flour and white rice.

On the contrary, high fiber food contains lower calories and releases the calorie slower than low fiber food. And therefore, the amount and rate at which glucose from the food is absorbed into the blood is slower. Because of that, blood sugar control is better with high fiber diet than low fiber diet.

Diabetes Type II signs and symptoms

Needless to say, if you are concerned about diabetes seek a medical help. Below is an overview of some of the diabetes signs and symptoms.

Hyperglycemia: high sugar levels in the blood and urine, frequent urination and increased thirst.

Ketoacidosis refers to a condition when there is a high level of waste products called ketones in the blood or urine. Ketoacidosis (also called diabetes coma) is characterized by dryness of mouth, a smell of acetone in the mouth, frequent urination (polyuria), high blood sugar, constant feeling of fatigue, rapid and frequent breathing etc. ketoacidosis is mostly a juvenile diabetes symptom.

Diabetes Type II treatment and management

Diabetes is a serious disease that needs medical attention. For diabetes diet plan or recipes consult medical nutrition therapist. As general rule, however, to promote general health and for diabetes management, it is highly recommended to consume high fiber food -on a daily basis a minimum of three servings of vegetables, two servings of fruits, and three servings of whole grain foods. Several researches also indicate that physical excercise may help alleviate diabetes Type II.

Diabetes diet

According to researches on diabetes for the last 25 years, and American and international diabetes associations, one of the strongly recommended diabetes mellitus prevention and management is to incorporate high dietary fiber and high carbohydrate (as opposed to low carbohydrate, low fiber and high fat food) in the diet. They recommend a diet that contains 20-50 g/day dietary fiber and in which carbohydrates make 55 – 65 % of the daily calorie intake. Non-processed starch-rich carbohydrates are protective against diabetes.

Natural dietary fiber sources that meet the recommended dietary fiber content are whole grain (eg. oats, barley) breads, breakfast cereals, pastas and noodles; fruits and vegetables. Researchs indicate that free radical-induced oxidative damage is higher in diabetic patients; and therefore, adopting a antioxidant rich diet (fruits, vegetables, and whole grain foods) is suggested to alleviate diabetic complications.

Diabetes and fiber supplements

Several clinical studies reviewed by Anderson et al. (2001) reported that using fiber supplements rich in soluble fibers such as guar, pectin, apple fiber and pysllium extract reduce requirenments for insulin. They reported that the fiber supplements lowered blood glucose and cholesterol (especially LDL) levels.

More information

Obviously, this website does not contain all you need to know about diabetes. It will be constantly updated as more and more scientific evidence on diabetes emerges. Useful diabetes information on causes of diabetes, signs and symptoms of diabetes, treatments and management of diabetes, diabetes supply, and diabetes diet and recipe can be obtained from websites of the American Diabetes Association, American Diabetic Association, and international diabetes associations such as British Diabetic Association, and Canadian Diabetes Association.

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