This clinical trial of before and after type was carried out in 2003. Women referring to the osteoporosis clinic of Endocrinology & Metabolism Research Centre of Tehran University of Medical Sciences for bone density measurement were screened to find osteopenic subjects and 15 postmenopausal 45–64 year old women were selected. Those women between 1 to 10 years postmenopause who were non-smokers and free from diseases entered this study.

Information on weight, height, body mass index, two 24-hr food consumption recall and physical activity were collected at the start, 6 and 12 weeks of the study. Soy protein at 35 g level containing 98.3 mg isoflavones were given to subjects daily. Subjects were provided with a special cup for measuring soy. Cooking instructions were also given to the subjects.

Blood and urine samplings were done in 3 stages, in the beginning and at the end of 6th and 12th week. Blood and urine samples were kept frozen until the end of the twelfth week at -80°C. Serum biochemical indicators were measured on the same day for all samples. Total alkaline phosphatase was assayed calorimetrically with Hitachi 902 autoanalyzer, osteocalcin by IRMA method using Biosource kit and Wizard gamacounter, IGFBP3 and c-telopeptide by ELISA using Biosources and Bioscience diagnostics respectively. Type I collagen telopeptide was determined by RIA method using Orion-Diagnostica on Wizard gama counter and urinary creatinine by colorimetrically method [17]. Food Processor software was used for food consumption survey and SPSS (version 11.5) was employed for statistical analysis of the data. All quantitative variables were then examined by Kolmogrof-Smirnof (KS) to ensure normality of distribution. To analyze any possible changes in food intake, intervening and biochemical variables in 3 stages, repeated measurement analysis was utilized. The purpose of this analysis was to ensure lack of significant changes of the variables. Significance level was set at below 5 percent (P < 0.05).


Subjects' anthropometric data are shown in Table 1. Mean age was 52.9 ± 4.3 years, years post menopause 5.47 ± 3.4 years and mean height 157.4 ± 7.2 centimeters. Mean body mass index and physical activity level remained unchanged. Mean food consumption figures were not different at 6 and 12 weeks compared to the start of the study (Table 2). Mean bone metabolic indicators for the 3 stages are given in Table 3. After 12 weeks of soy consumption total serum alkaline phosphatase (TALP) significantly increased while urinary deoxypyridinoline (DPD) decreased (P < 0.05). Other indicators namely osteocalcin, insulin growth factor binding protein (IGFBP3), c-telopeptide and type-I collagen telopeptides did not change significantly.